Alt mens kultur spiller en stadig større rolle i videnssamfundet og det globale samfunds kulturmoder, bliver vi bevidste om, hvor komplekst og vanskeligt det er at give en klar definition. Kulturpsykologi – kulturens rolle gennemgår det nye tværvidenskabelige felt kulturpsykologi, der omfatter forskelli ge discipliner som psykologi, antropologi og filosofi. Bogen diskuterer, hvorledes kulturpsykologien er et opqør med tidligere forstilelser af psyken og viser forskellige kulturpsykologiske teoriers potentialer og problemer ud f ra ko nkrete eksempler. Bogen er opdelt i kapitle r om hvad ku ltur er, ikke-videnskabelige og videnskabelige kult urbegreber, kulturen i psyken, internalisering, mediering gennem artefakter, organiseri ng af viden og kulturel viden.
Ideen om kongen som en særlig »hellig « person kendes helt tilbage fra
oldtidens Egypten. Den er stadig udbredt i store dele af Afrika, også selv om
det her ofte drejer sig om kongeriger – eller høvdingedammer – a f betydelig
mindre format. Tidligere kaldtes disse for »gudekongedammer«, hvilket dog
er misvisende, da kcngen ikke er genst an d for egentlig tilbedelse; han er
snarere det samlende symbol for samfundet og garant fo r d et s ve lfrer d . I
artikIen skildres en audiens hos kongen a f ns o, en undergruppe af tikar-folket
i d et ve stlige Cameroun.
Hvad er drivkraften bag fysikvidenskaben? Et igangvrerende
forskningsprojekt bruger livshistorier til at belyse, hvilke
erkendelsesinteresser der driver den fysiske forskning.
Meget tyder på, at en stigende pavirkning fra medieindustrien
og et voksende pres for at legitimere sin forskning er
veesent liqe drivkrrefter.
This paper argues that cultural learning is a useful anthropological concept in analysing how neophytes – both first year students in the physics department of a university, and the anthropologist studying them – learn from reactions and other forms of social designation. The first year students have to learn that certain places, acts and objects are to be interpreted as vehicles for concept ions of belonging to, or exclusion from, everyday institutional life. Familiar objects such as dresses and chairs are imbued with a specific significance as the act of sitting on a chair or wearing a short dress takes on a new symbolic meaning in a cultural context where inclusion and exclusion are a constant concern. By following and analysing what is involved in t he process of becoming a physics student the anthropologist is able to establish what may be seen as the cultural moral logic behind the inclusion and exclusion of students.
In this article, we suggest that research is a practical activity building on local category
systems belonging specifically to research (etic categories) as well as categories belonging specifically to the national culture of the researcher (emic categories) (Pike 1967). Much cross-cultural research can be argued to rest on what has been called implicit comparisons (Nader 1994) of such categorisations. We assume that research of local activities, such as schooling and higher education, is influenced by the researcher’s emic and etic categorisations. To get beyond the risk of reproducing the researcher’s cultural background (i.e., emic categorisations) in the analysis of cross-cultural comparisons we suggest that the categorisations the researcher use in her tests and fieldwork descriptions are taken to be part of the research itself, rather than simply being an underlying (taken for granted) framework on which the research is conducted.
First we present a recent study of European universities as culturally diverse working
places and we present an approach in which the researcher’s emic and etic categorisations can be challenged when contrasted with each other (Hasse & Trentemøller 2008). Second, we argue for the need for a shared understanding among researchers in international projects. We present the method of culture contrast as one way of dealing with the inevitable problem of different perceptions of words and their meanings. This method does not rest on the approach employed in traditional cross-cultural studies where a generalized category, as a tertium comparationis, is identified and tested in two (or more) different cultural settings. Through a reflexive process of research, we show how patterns of connections can be contrasted and thus made explicit leading to new and surprising challenges of the researcher’s emic categorisations. We illustrate the case with examples of different understandings of three terms, hierarchy, family, and sexual harassment, in the Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map (UPGEM) project.
Keywords: culture; word meaning; activity systems; cross-cultural studies; connectivity; cultural models; culture contrasts
Psychological Anthropology: A Reader on Self in Culture, edited by Robert A. LeVine, Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 408 pp., $99.95 (hardcover).
In this article I propose that a postphenomenological approach to science and technology can open new analytical understandings of how material artifacts, embodiment and social agency co-produce learned perceptions of objects.
In particle physics, physicists work in huge groups of scientists from many cultural backgrounds. Communication to some extent depends on material hermeneutics of flowcharts, models and other visual presentations. As it appears in an examination of physicists’ scrutiny of visual renderings of different parts of a detector, perceptions vary in relation to social and bodily experiences. Vision in physics has seemingly allowed an objective perception at a convenient distance of the body.
This article challenges this view and proposes that the variations can be analysed as cultural at two echelons with the help of a postphenomenological approach combined with cultural psychological theory of artifacts. A third echelon presumably constitutes the phenomenological limit to culture in science. Even this last resort of subjectivity can be embraced by a postphenomenological approach. The process of culturalization in physics can be defined as a process of situating knowledge in a body whose continuous learning of micro-and macro perceptions makes scientific renderings unstable. Taken together postphenomenology, following the distinctions between body one and body two, and combined with cultural psychological learning theory, enables new insight into what constitutes culture in science.
Keywords: Postphenomenology, Science and technology studies, Cultural psychology, Situated knowledge, Cultural learning processes
It has been argued that in higher education academic disciplines
can be seen as communities of practices. This implies a focus on what
constitutes identities in academic culture. In this article I argue that the
transition from newcomer to a full participant in a community of
practice of physicists entails a focus on how identities emerge in
learning how to highlight certain aspects of personal life histories. The
analysis of interviews with 55 physicists shows that physicists often perceive
experiences in their childhood as the first step into their
professional identities as physicists. These experiences involve
recollections of the ability to think scientifically (e.g., ‘go beyond the
surface’), and the ability to play with toys which can be connected to
the practical life of physics. The process of identity formation can be
described as developing in a relational zone of proximal development,
where old-timers recognize particular playful qualities in newcomers
as a legitimate access to a physicist identity. The article discusses how
play which physicists connects with a scientific mind can constitute a
relational zone of proximal developments in a community of practice as
a particular “space of authoring” in a physicist culture, which cut
across other cultural differences.
European Journal of Psychology of Education
2008, Vol. XXIII, nº 2, 149-164
© 2008, I.S.P.A.
In this article I argue that creative acts cannot be confined to the individual. Creativity can be seen as a meeting between an individual and a wider activity system. This argument is related to the claim that a zone of proximal development (ZPD), the concept connected to the culturalhistorical psychologist Lev Vygotsky, is both an internal and an external relation between an actual and a potential developmental zone. I shall suggest that institutions can facilitate creative potential and development if the associated members are trained or already have potential developmental zones answering to the actual development of the members of staff. The argument is supported by two case studies—one from fieldwork in an institution of higher education, and one from an institution for the mentally handicapped—and supplemented with a few historical examples.
Culture & Psychology Copyright © 2001 SAGE Publications
(London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi)
Vol. 7(2): 199–221 [1354–067X(200106) 7:2; 199–221; 017201][spiderpowa-pdf src=”http://cathrinehasse.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/insitutionalcreativity.pdf”]